I only have a small garden and although I now have a raised bed for veg (2 m x 1 m) I still grow a lot in containers. This year I've sown carrots in a polystyrene box that some glassware came in at work...just made holes in the bottom and filled with a 50:50 sand:multi-purpose compost mix.
I'm growing some mini-veg this year in large (14") pots
Pumpkin F1 'Windsor' and butternut squash F1 'Butterbush' I shall wait until the plants are quite big (they are just large seedlings atm) before I plant them in the pots with a rich potting compost mix and a frame of canes to grow up.
I've grown sugar snap peas in these big pots too (Jessy is a nice one)....
Hestia is a very nice bean plant, very bushy and it does well in pots.
Little gem lettuce is fine in pots...or any of the 'cut and come again' salad leaves that are readily available.
There are seeds sold specifically for growing in small gardens, for container gardening...tomatoes like 'Tumbling Tom' and 'Garden Pearl' do well in hanging baskets.
I grew onions 'Santero' F1 in a tub last year and sweetcorn...3 plants in a 15" pot.
So yes....there's lots out there
Globe carrots grown in a tub