They will work in pots, it's just a pain to water them all the time while the fruit is setting. They like plenty of water, but don't like their roots sitting in it.
I would buy some ericaceous compost and plant them in that. Just make sure you give them a good mulch so that the acidity is replaced when it's naturally diluted during winter rains.
Do you have an area of your garden where brambles like to grow? If so I'd put your raspberries there - they thrive in the same conditions.
If you still have no luck next year I would try loganberries - a cross between raspberries and blackberries and a bit more tolerant of differnent soil types.
As for diseases, raspberries are prone to :
Cane spot - purplish spots on the leaves and fruit. The canes need to be cut to beneath ground level and burnt and then a copper fungicide used on the growing canes as they emerge.
Grey Mould - The canes start to die off. Cut back to fresh growth and burn dead canes. Prune the canes back to let air circulate around them.
Spur blight is like cane spot with purple blotches but on the canes and the canes start to turn silver. In spring the buds and shoots die back. Again cut out diseased canes and burn them. Use a copper fungicide when the buds have grown about an inch.
Aphids can also be a problem. Look for the leaves curling, underneath there will be a sticky mess of tiny insects. There are a number of ways of getting rid of aphids but I just remove the badly affected leaves, try to wash the others and then spray with a strong solution of washing up liquid. If there are ants on there as well I try to find the nest and destroy it as they (literally) farm the little buggers.