Hi David 25, I will start with the easy one first, The last photo 3 is a Cyclamen, they generally flower in winter, they mostly like good light, but cold weather. They like to be moist but not wet, if you remove the flowers as they fade it should encourage new flowers. Yours looks quite healthy to me although, do you know if its an indoor or outdoor variety? That will make all the difference.
second one 2 is a bit more tricky, If your dog is weeing on a plant then its getting an overdose of nitrogen, that in itself isn't poisonous to the plant but the concentration will be. You will need to keep an eye on it and as soon as hes weed on it then you will need to add a fair amout of water to dilute the concentration. There is a product called dogrocks into the dogs water to dilute the levels of nitrogen (although I don't know if they work, you can try giving your dog tomato juice or tomatoes, I find that makes a difference (but the best thing is dilution).
The first image escalonia red carpet has a eventual height of roughly 1meter by 1.5meters wide, The plant looks healthy enough at the back but its doing what it does and spreading aswell. I wouldn't say that you have made a mistake by not planting it dead centre, the border space in effect isnt wide enough for the plants growth habbit, therefore you are trying to make it wide & tall at the back and sides. Looks like you are getting growth on the bare-ish area on the right of the bush but remember that if it indeed does grow to the right then it may well block some of the light from the plant to its right. Maybe plant a shade tolerant bedding plant in the space inbetween the two? I would also cut off the growth from above the lawn (if you plan on keeping it there). I certainly wouldn't move the plant to the right to fill the gap.