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A standard lawn weedkiller should remove them, e.g., Verdone. They may need two applications.
It'll add to the organic content of the soil, but it has no food value. If anything, it'll take a bit of nitrogen out of the soil as it breaks down, so it might be an idea to add a sprinkle of nitrogen when you add the sawdust.
You certainly can do as long as you bring them in if there's a frost predicted.
Yes, as already said, it could be an older type of busy lizzie - they used to be much taller and more gangly before improved by modern breeding.
The easiest way is to pick them off by hand. You can spray with something like pyrethrum, but you have to actually hit the caterpillar, so you might as well just pick it off.
I would keep them in pots for at least a year, as the bulbs will be very small. Also, the emerging leaves look a lot like grass and there's a danger you'd weed them out next spring!
Not a disease, but a positional problem. I'd guess that the culprits are snails. If you go out at night with a torch you may find them at work. There may also be caterpillar present - check the backs of the leaves carefully.
Try burying them slightly, so that the tubers are covered - they may not be re-hydrating enough.
Probably nothing - many of them are actually annuals.
If yours are definitely perennials, then drainage may be the issue - dianthus don't like cold, wet soil and do best when kept fairly dry over winter.
A few people are already here, Marty - have a look at this thread: