I think it's a viola, probably 'Velour Purple & White':
Top one is definitely an oriental poppy.
Yep, one of those two I think. Hoiking-out time, while you still can!
Rats would be my next suspect.
If the bulbs have just been chewed rather than eaten then foxes are a possibility (eaten bulbs will be gone of course.)
Squirrels are the usual culprit.
Alice, magnolia are hardy trees and need to be outdoors, preferably planted in the ground. The gnats you see are fungus gnats which only live in the compost of indoor plants.
I've tried them outside Ellen but they all perished over the winter so I would leave them in a tub and bring them inside when you start getting frosts.
Might be a tree seedling like Field Maple.
Sounds like you have a Corsican (aka Black) pine, SG.
Yes, the water will contain no dissolved substances and be neutral in pH. It is effectively the same as distilled water.