Posted: 29/08/2013 at 19:31
Hi Emelia, That is indeed lichen on the very old/dead wood of the rose and lavendar (pics 1 and 5) - nothing to worry about. Lavendar needs regular pruning to prevent them getting leggy and full of old wood like that, so it's probably been neglected and is now well past its prime - might be time to let it go. The old dead wood on the rose needs cutiing off when you prune it next Spring. However, the yellow stuff on pic 2 is some kind of fungi - cut that (dead) branch off flush with the main stem now. The stems of the buddleia are just old and do go like that. To keep them tidy you should prune all stems on buddleias back hard in Spring and they will sprout fresh new growth. The specks on the apples are where a wasp, or bug has had a 'taste', or where a moth has laid an egg. Normally they are only surface blemishes, quite edible and nothing to worry about. There is a small possibility that a wasp or moth has laid eggs inside though, so when they are ripe simply peel the skin off where the marks are - if no sign of grubs, no problem.