Overgrown roses are easily dealt with MatillyC. Start by looking for dead wood and cut that out at the base. Then stand back and have a look. It may be a queen Elizabeth from your description, a picture would confirm it. You can reduce height now if you wish, by a third back to an outward facing bud. Take out any damaged and crossing stems as well. Then take another look. It'll look better and then I'd leave it alone for now. In spring you can hard prune it to a simple 3 stems. However saying all this if it is a queen Elizabeth it'll shoot away next year as they're vigorous shrub roses. But at least you'll have some control from the outset next year.
Arty, water it copiously. Honeysuckle need moisture at the roots, they rarely need any feeding and leaf discolouration and leaf drop are a sign of lack of water. All feeding does is induce stress as they can't take up the nutrients due to lack of moisture. A happy honeysuckle has wet feet.
There isn't a weedkiller that'll work underground. You'd be best advised to wait, let the bindweed grow, then treat. Bindweed in lawns will be kept under control by regular mowing which will eventually starve it. In beds let it grow and treat as it emerges. If you have a bit of patience itll be worth it in the long run.
Plant pauper,, they will flower in the first year, although subsequent years are better. As for cuttings there's a video by Carol Kliene on taking them on this site, they're pretty simple to take.
I've got them planted in front of crocosmia Lucifer and a tall orange crocosmia. Sets them off really nicely.
I don't personally, I take basal cuttings in spring which works for me.
It's too much rain. I've been this on a variety of plants this year. Buds rotting off die to the rain.
Mixymax, had exactly the same problem in a garden I look after. Last year fine this year awful and I've had reports from other clients of the same problem. I can only put it down to the weather this year.