Botany, very much related to gardening!
George, did you know that when you use upper case in messages it comes across as shouting at us? It's called netiquette!
Glebionis segetum, Corn Marigold. It's a common ingredient in wildflower mixes.
Sorry, not Chenopodium, their leaves taper into the stalk. Probably an Atriplex, one of the Oraches, but a difficult group to ID.
Looks like a Spiraea, possibly S. douglasii. They do that, I'm afraid. I would remove the brown heads to keep the bush tidy.
Yes, see what you mean, perhaps it is.
They have long yellow roots, you need to get it all out or they will regrow.
The second photo looks like a pot full of weeds to me! I can see a willowherb and the geranium is probably Geranium lucidum, Shining Cranesbill, a pesky weed in my garden.
In Rutland, land of the horseshoe, they are always oriented the way that nutcutlet says. You can always plant a rowan to keep witches and the devil away.