I think you need to define a cut off point for what is acceptable as English. Pre ice age, post ice age, Roman invasion of us, our invasions of others?
how about a photo?
It looks very plum like. Difficult without seeing flower or fruit. Bullaces flower very early and often get a frost. Some trees are inclined to fruit on alternate years.
Looking at the shape of that I wonder if you have a grafted tree and one side of that is from the rootstock.
protection will be needed whatever you choose, anything in the garden is unreliable at best
looks like an allium, not a grass for sure.
possibly, not all plants do that. I don't cut mine back so can't say.
If you're going to do it, remove the whole stem. It looks much better but otherwise makes no difference.
They make seeds and more plants if you leave them
What a useless instruction, just don't let them dry out.
Some sort of cherry I think