I'd say creeping buttercup. Meadow Bs have more finely divided leaves.
I think the weird extension will open into a flower.
probably mildew. I wouldn't worry at this time of year. Are they scabious or the similar Knautia macedonica? they are very prone to mildew.
I think those with the different coloured berries, in GCs now, are varieties of Hypericum x inodorum
I should think so H-C
not a juniper. Picea probably - spruce
Yes, as jansi says, a cotoneaster. no doubt about that. I couldn't say which one
I'm more ruthless each year
Difficult to stop?
my white macrorrhizum is so slow and fragile I couldn't recommend it as ground cover. Nice, but not robust. Not like the deep pink ?Bevan's variety which could fill that area in a couple of years