Thje plant in the picture with your hand is a japanese anemone. I think we all agree there.
conjuncta is it Will? Not one I've grown
They're very prickly but make good little hedgehogs if you have kids
Wrong assessment of how glyphosate works Angloaussie. The more leaf it has to work on, the better it works. Use it in the concentration recommended on the bottle.
The top one might be an alchemilla, A.erythropoda or alpina maybe
The second is Sorbaria sorbifolia 'Kem
The third I think an astrantia
Weren't there leaves up the flower spike?
Whatever it's done it won't do anything else til next year
Obedient plant as in physostegia? It's a long time since I grew it but I don't think it looked like that
Can you raise the pot off the ground on those little feet? Ants can and do damage plants by removing the soil from around the roots. A good drowing might get rid of them but you may have to repot to eliminate them. Unless you use ant killer. I don't like ant killer, I don't know how far up the food chain it goes. I only use it when the ants get in the house