that could be Viburnum lantana, Wayfaring tree
start from the camera icon and make your photo much smaller. I reduce the size of mine to 30%
slug worms probably, there are quite a few species, I had Cherry Slug Worm, Caliroa cerasi, never seen any of the others.
it would take a top class spurgeologist to ID the species/cultivar
the flower, as you suspect, isn't from the same plant Emmalily
What are you trying to grow? Some perennials are much more reliable than others and only the hardy annuals seed o from year to year.
I'd say creeping buttercup. Meadow Bs have more finely divided leaves.
I think the weird extension will open into a flower.
probably mildew. I wouldn't worry at this time of year. Are they scabious or the similar Knautia macedonica? they are very prone to mildew.
I think those with the different coloured berries, in GCs now, are varieties of Hypericum x inodorum
I should think so H-C