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The layer of soil nearest the surface, which can reach a depth of around 30cm.
The aerobically decomposed remnants of organic matter used to enrich soil.Peat-free composts commonly consist of composted bark, wood fibre and coir, with added nutrients. Using peat-free composts has considerable environmental benefits
A complex single cell organism that's common wherever there is water - oceans, lakes, ponds and soil.
The term used for fungal ailments, usually affecting seedlings, that cause the stem to rot off at soil level.
Plants that are lime hating and require acid soils with a pH of 6.5 or lower. See Calcifuge.
Non-woody plants, whose upper parts die back to the soil surface at the end of the growing season each year.
An organism, viral, bacterial, fungal or parasitical, that attacks plants. It may be water, air or soil borne, or carried by insects.
The act of sinking a pot plant in soil, sand or cinders, to prevent roots from drying out.
The matted roots and soil of a plant that can be seen when transplanting a pot plant, and which should be kept entire.
Dig up congested clumps of winter aconites and transplant to new sitesImprove the soil the soil by spreading compost or manure over beds and forking inMove plants growing in the wrong placeDig deeply areas where you'll be planting new roses, shrubs