What to prune in winter

Work in the garden slows down during the colder months, but it needn't come to a complete standstill. There are plenty of plants that benefit from winter pruning, including summer-blooming clematis and climbing roses. Find out more, below, and pick up tips on the correct pruning tools and techniques.

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Clematis

Deciduous varieties that bloom in late summer, such as:

· C. texensis and varieties
· C. viticella and varieties
· Large-flowered Jackmanii group



Key tool:
secateurs

How to do it: cut back to about 1m high to remove long, old growth and encourage strong flowering shoots. Texensis and viticella hybrids can be cut back to ground level before new growth emerges. You could also use hand shears. 

Roses

While ramblers are left until summer, the following must be pruned in winter:

· Climbing roses
· Floribundas
· Hybrid teas
· Species roses


Key tool:
secateurs

How to do it: hard prune all stems of large-flowered types to promote flowering shoots. Roses grown for hips should have a few of the oldest stems removed in late winter. You could also use loppers for cutting out thick, old branches.

Overgrown shrubs

Deciduous shrubs that often outgrow their welcome should be pruned in winter, including:

· Cotinus
· Berberis
· Flowering currants
· Magnolias


Key tool:
pruning saw

How to do it: remove the oldest, least productive main branches, plus any that are badly placed. Don't cut out more than one-third of the total plant in one year - rejuvenate it gradually over three to four years. You could also use loppers. 

Plants that 'bleed'

Woody, deciduous plants that ooze sapunless pruned when dormant ought to be pruned in winter, including:

· Acers
· Birches
· Figs
· Grapevines

Key tool:secateurs

How to do it:prune during mid-winter while the plant is deeply dormant. This should ensure that the cut stems don't bleed sap, which can weaken the plant. You could also use loppers or a pruning saw for large branches. 

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