You can use small seed trays and plant varieties of lettuce and 'cut and come again' varieties and grow them on the windowsill now, cutting them as needed. One of my essentials each year is to grow peas for their shoots. Any old container will do (last year I used a couple of butler sinks and a couple of polystyrene boxes), sow the peas fairly close together and wait. Cut the shoots for salads and stir frys. Sow a new batch every 3 weeks or so to ensure an ongoing supply, each batch will last for at least 2-3 cuttings. I cant see any reason why this couldn't be done inside. Also try rocket, basil (lots of varieties avaialble - dont over-water), mint, corriander and don't forget chillis and peppers etc! Good luck!