How to grow cactus plants

How to grow cactus plants

All you need to know about growing cactus plants, in our detailed Grow Guide.

Cactus plants, or cacti, make excellent house plants. Like succulents, they’re used to hot, dry, sunny conditions – many are native to the desert. Their fleshy, usually leafless stems are designed to store water, so they’re able to cope with long periods of drought. As such they need very little watering and can even rot if given too much. They come in a range of shapes and sizes and – if you’re lucky – they bear delightful, brightly coloured flowers in summer.


Cacti can be grown individually in pots or as part of a long term indoor pot display. They also work well in terrariums. Slow growing, cacti can be grown in the same pot for years.

How to grow cactus plants

Grow cacti in free-draining compost in full sun. Water sparingly between spring and autumn and stop watering completely for the rest of the year.

More on growing cactus plants:

Where to plant cacti

How to grow cactus plants - where to plant cactus
How to grow cactus plants – where to plant cactus

Cacti need a sunny spot in very well-drained compost, such as cactus compost, to thrive.

For best results choose a south- or east-facing windowsill. You may need to find an alternative spot for them in winter if the windowsill becomes too cold.

How to plant cacti

How to grow cactus plants - planting cactus
How to grow cactus plants – planting cactus

Always plant cacti with care. The spines can prick and hurt your skin. It’s a good idea to use common kitchen items such as a thick tea towel, spoon and fork to help you plant your cactus, so you can avoid hurting yourself.

Plant cactus in a very free-draining compost such as cactus compost. Alternatively use a peat-free multi-purpose compost with added horticultural grit or vermiculite, to aid drainage.

Mulch with a layer of horticultural grit or pebbles to complete the look of the pot display. This also prevents water splashing back on the cactus.

Kevin Smith, Gardeners’ World Magazine, explains how to create an attractive display using cactus plants, in our No Fuss video guide. Kevin explains why salad tongs are the tool of choice for handling cacti, which compost to use, and how to create a decorative mulch:

Fancy something a little different? Here, Kevin explains how to plant up a cactus and succulent terrarium:

How to propagate cacti

How to grow cactus plants - cactus seedling
How to grow cactus plants – cactus seedling

Cactus can be grown from seed although it can take several years for plants to reach a decent size. However you can buy mixed cactus seed cheaply, and it’s fun to see which cactus varieties you end up with.

To grow cactus from seed, fill a pot with a moist, gritty, free-draining compost, firm down and level. Scatter cactus seeds over the surface, taking care not to sow them too thickly. Then, gently sprinkle a thin layer of vermiculite or fine grit over the seeds. Cover the pot with a clear plastic bag to preserve soil moisture, and leave the in a greenhouse or on a warm windowsill.

Some cacti can be propagated from cuttings. Others bear offsets, which can simply be snipped off the plant and potted on.

Caring for cactus plants

How to grow cactus plants - caring for cactus plants
How to grow cactus plants – caring for cactus plants

In summer, water cacti no more than once a week. A good watering less often is better than a little-and-often approach. You shouldn’t need to water cacti at all in the coldest months.

Repot cacti every couple of years, to give them fresh compost – you won’t necessarily need to pot them into a larger pot.

In this Golden Rules video, Stan Griffin of Craig House Cacti reveals his three top tips on growing cactus plants with success, including when to water and feed, and when not to. He also gives advice on how to take cuttings from cacti.

Growing cactus plants: problem solving

Cactus plants are usually trouble free. If overwatered or not given enough light they can rot at the base. This is usually fatal for the plants.

Cactus plants can develop spindly growth but it’s easy to rectify. Emma Crawforth, BBC Gardeners’ World Magazine, explains all, in our Quick Tips video.

Cactus varieties to grow

How to grow cactus - Rebutia krainziana
How to grow cactus – Rebutia krainziana

Echinocactus grusonii  – golden barrel cactus is globe-shaped but eventually grows tall. Native to Mexico, it bears bright green stems with spiked ribs. Bright yellow flowers appear in summer.

Gymnocalycium paraguayense  – a variable cactus with flattened spines. It produces creamy white flowers in spring and summer.

Mammillaria spinosissima – a globe-shaped cactus with bright pink, funnel-shaped flowers. Its central spines are a reddish-brown or yellow.


Rebutia krainzianaa clump-forming barrel cactus, forming dark green stems up to 7cm in diameter, with contrasting small, white areoles and spines. In late spring large, yellow or red flowers develop around the main stem, forming a tight clump.