October is the month of seedheads, light frosts, fattening up for winter, and migration. Keep an eye out for 'autumn orphan' hedgehogs, which were born as late as September and will not be able to gain enough weight to survive hibernation. Leave water and food such as kitten or cat biscuits for them, until it's no longer taken. If you see a hedgehog out during the day, call your local hedgehog rescue immediately – it will likely need urgent medical attention.

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Now's a good time to clean bird feeders and refill them with calorie-rich food such as suet and peanuts. As the days shorten, birds have less time to find food, and need a lot of energy to shiver to keep warm on cold nights. Leaving seedheads on plants and ivy flowers to develop into calorie-rich berries will help birds significantly over the next few weeks.

How to help wildlife in your garden


Bats are fattening up before winter

Daubenton's Bat (Myotis daubentonii) hunting an insect at night. Getty Images
Daubenton's Bat ( Myotis daubentonii) hunting an insect at night. Getty Images

Bats are emerging from their roosts earlier in the evening, about half an hour after sunset for most species. This month they are mating. Males attract females with special calls that include clicks, purrs and even buzzing. They're also eating to fatten up before hibernation, and choosing hibernation sites.


Male frogs are croaking

Frog in a pond
Frog in a pond

Listen out for 'autumn croaking' by male frogs in your garden, particularly near your pond. It's not known exactly why frogs croak in autumn – in spring they croak to attract a mate. Perhaps autumn croaking is a way of saying "this is a good pond for spring".

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Redwings and fieldfares are migrating

Fieldfare (Turdus pilaris). Getty Images
Fieldfare (Turdus pilaris). Getty Images

Migrant birds, like redwings and fieldfares, are starting to arrive here from Scandinavia and Russia, thanks to the UK's milder winters. They eat berries from plants like hawthorn and holly, but will come to gardens if these are in short supply in the countryside. As well as planting more berrying shrubs, leave halved apples on the ground. You may be lucky enough to attract a flock of these migrant thrushes.


Queen wasps are preparing to hibernate

Bee hotel
Bee hotel

Queen wasps are feeding on the last of the ivy flowers before entering hibernation. They'll hibernate in cracks and crevices beneath tree bark, or take advantage of a bee or bug hotel you've put up.


Crane flies are laying eggs

Crane fly sits on leaf. Tim Sandall / RHS
Crane fly sits on a leaf. Tim Sandall / RHS
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Crane flies, also known as daddy long legs, are in our gardens in abundance, now. Look out for them mating and laying eggs in the lawn. Attracted to light, they may come into your home. Gently scoop them up and return them to your garden so they can complete their lifecycle.

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