Apples and pears ripening on the tree are damaged by wasps excavating holes into the flesh. The holes are initially created by hungry birds, then wasps are attracted by the sugary juice and move in.
Apples and pears that are still on the tree display hollowed out cavities, often with wasps still inside feeding on the flesh, making the fruit unappetising to eat.
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Prize apple and pears can be protected by covering them in old nylon tights, squares of horticultural fleece, muslin or something similar. You can also hang up wasp traps to catch them before they do any damage. Otherwise, there is little that can be done.
Nearby wasp nests can be eliminated by calling in professional pest control companies, or if the infestation is small enough, tackle it yourself with an over-the-counter solution.