Most gardeners welcome the sight of butterflies tumbling around our herbaceous borders. Common species such as the small tortoiseshell and peacock are as colourful as some of the prettiest garden flowers, and complement them perfectly.
Sadly, many butterfly species are in decline, due to a combination of climate change, pesticide use and habitat loss.
However, there's a lot we can do to help butterflies in our gardens. The main thing to do is to grow nectar-rich flowers from March to November. Planting caterpillar foodplants will also enable them to complete their lifecycles in your garden.
More on gardening for butterflies:
Find out more about gardening for butterflies, below.
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Grow flowers in a sunny, sheltered spot
Butterflies feed and bask in full sun, so grow nectar-rich flowers in a sunny, sheltered spot, such as in front of a hedge.
Grow nectar-rich plants in spring
Spring flowers are vital for butterflies coming out of hibernation or those that have migrated here from the Continent. Good, nectar-rich plants for spring include Erysimum 'Bowles's Mauve' (which flowers in summer and autumn, too), aubretia, violet, wallflowers, primrose, hyacinth, bluebell, grape hyacinth, chamomile, lilac and sweet rocket.
Grow nectar-rich flowers in summer
Some of the best plants for summer nectar include buddleja, Verbena bonariensis, lavender, marjoram (Origanum), red valerian and hebe. You could also include honeysuckle, cranesbill, catmint, cosmos, feverfew, helenium, echinacea and heliotrope.
Grow nectar-rich flowers in autumn
Water flowering plants during dry spells
Water your plants well – this means they will keep producing nectar during dry periods, when other plants dry up. Mulching around the base of plants will help the soil retain moisture and will nourish them, too, keeping them healthy.
Deadhead spent flowers
Deadheading spent flowers helps to keep plants blooming for longer, which means more nectar for butterflies. Find out how to deadhead your plants.
Grow caterpillar food plants
While adult butterflies feed on nectar, their caterpillars feed on the leaves and buds of specific plants, such as nettles, holly and ivy, and lady's smock (Cardamine pratensis). Growing these plants in your garden will enable butterflies to complete their lifecycles.
Don't use pesticides
Insecticides, especially when used on or near flowering plants or caterpillar food plants, can kill butterflies and other pollinating insects, as well as spiders, ground beetles and ladybirds. Other pesticides, such as weedkillers, remove important caterpillar foodplants from your garden.
Leave fallen fruit in autumn
If you leave windfall fruit under your pear, apple or plum tree, some butterflies, including red admiral and painted lady, may feed on the sugary juices.
Plant a meadow
The caterpillars of several butterflies, including skippers, the meadow brown and gatekeeper, feed on native grasses. Simply leave an area of grass to grow long and they may breed there. Laying wildflower turf or growing native wildflowers among the grasses, will provide nectar for visiting adults, too.